Buy Sodium Hydroxide Powder
At room temperature, anhydrous sodium hydroxide is a white crystalline, odorless solid that absorbs moisture from the air. It is produced as flakes, pellets, sticks, and cakes. When dissolved in water or neutralized with acid, it liberates substantial heat, which may be sufficient to ignite combustible materials. Sodium hydroxide is caustic and is one of several alkaline compounds referred to as "lye." It is generally used commercially as either the solid or as a 50% aqueous solution and should be stored in a cool, dry, well ventilated location separate from organic and oxidizing materials, acids, and metal powders.
buy sodium hydroxide powder
Inhalation of sodium hydroxide dust, mist, or aerosol may cause irritation of the mucous membranes of the nose, throat, and respiratory tract. Sodium hydroxide is odorless; thus, odor provides no warning of hazardous concentrations. Mucous membrane irritation occurs at the OSHA PEL (2 mg/m3) and is generally an adequate warning property for acute exposure to sodium hydroxide. However, workers exposed to prolonged or recurrent mists or aerosols of sodium hydroxide can become somewhat tolerant of the irritant effects. Sodium hydroxide of sufficient strength can hydrolyze proteins in tissues and can kill cells in tissues.
Children exposed to the same levels of sodium hydroxide in air as adults may receive a larger dose because they have greater lung surface area:body weight ratios and increased minute volumes:weight ratios. In addition, they may be exposed to higher levels than adults in the same location because of their short stature and the higher levels of sodium hydroxide in air found nearer to the ground.
Exposure to sodium hydroxide solid or solution can cause skin and eye irritation. Direct contact with the solid or with concentrated solutions causes thermal and chemical burns leading to deep-tissue injuries. Very strong solutions of sodium hydroxide can hydrolyze proteins in the eyes, leading to severe burns and eye damage or, in extreme cases, blindness.
Sodium hydroxide is used to manufacture soaps, rayon, paper, explosives, dyestuffs, and petroleum products. It is also used in processing cotton fabric, laundering and bleaching, metal cleaning and processing, electroplating, oxide coating, and electrolytic extracting. It is commonly present in commercial drain and oven cleaners.
Sodium hydroxide dissolves easily in water generating a great deal of heat. It reacts with acids (also generating a lot of heat); halogenated organic compounds; metals such as aluminum, tin, and zinc; and nitromethane. Sodium hydroxide is corrosive to most metals.
Sodium hydroxide is strongly irritating and corrosive. It can cause severe burns and permanent damage to any tissue that it comes in contact with. The extent of damage to the gastrointestinal tract may not be clear until several hours after ingestion. Inhaled sodium hydroxide can cause swelling of the larynx and an accumulation of fluid in the lungs. Contact with 25-50% solutions produces immediate irritation, while after contact with solutions of 4% or less, irritation may not develop for several hours. It may not be possible to correctly ascertain the degree of damage to eyes for up to 72 hours after exposure.
Inhalation of sodium hydroxide is immediately irritating to the respiratory tract. Swelling or spasms of the larynx leading to upper-airway obstruction and asphyxia can occur after high-dose inhalation. Inflammation of the lungs and an accumulation of fluid in the lungs may also occur.
Skin contact with solid sodium hydroxide or its concentrated solutions can cause severe burns with deep ulcerations. Burns appear soft and moist and are very painful. Although contact with concentrated solutions causes pain and irritation within 3 minutes, contact with dilute solutions may not cause symptoms for several hours.
Ingestion of sodium hydroxide can cause spontaneous vomiting, chest and abdominal pain, and difficulty swallowing with drooling. Corrosive injury to the mouth, throat, esophagus, and stomach is extremely rapid and may result in perforation, hemorrhage, and narrowing of the gastrointestinal tract.
Cancer of the esophagus has been reported 15 to 40 years after the formation of corrosion-induced strictures. However, it is believed that these cancers were the result of tissue destruction and scar formation rather than a direct cancer-causing action of sodium hydroxide.
Chronic exposure to dusts or mists of sodium hydroxide may lead to ulceration of the nasal passages. Chronic skin exposures can lead to dermatitis. Ingestion may lead to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract or stricture formation.
Sodium hydroxide dissociates within the body and would not reach the reproductive organs in an unchanged state. No data were located concerning reproductive endpoints in humans exposed to sodium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide is not teratogenic in rats. Sodium hydroxide is not included in Reproductive and Developmental Toxicants, a 1991 report published by the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) that lists 30 chemicals of concern because of widely acknowledged reproductive and developmental consequences.
Respiratory Protection: Positive-pressure, self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) is recommended in response situations that involve exposure to potentially unsafe levels of sodium hydroxide.
Rapid decontamination is critical. Victims who are able may assist with their own decontamination. Rescuers should wear protective clothing and gloves while treating patients whose skin is contaminated with sodium hydroxide.
Flush exposed or irritated eyes with plain water or saline for at least 30 minutes. Remove contact lenses if easily removable without additional trauma to the eye, otherwise sodium hydroxide trapped beneath the lens will continue to damage the eye. If pain or injury is evident, continue irrigation while transferring the victim to the Support Zone.
Treat patients who have bronchospasm with aerosolized bronchodilators. The use of bronchial sensitizing agents in situations of multiple chemical exposures may pose additional risks. Consider the health of the myocardium before choosing which type of bronchodilator should be administered. Cardiac sensitizing agents may be appropriate; however, the use of cardiac sensitizing agents after exposure to certain chemicals may pose enhanced risk of cardiac arrhythmias (especially in the elderly). Sodium hydroxide poisoning is not known to pose additional risk during the use of bronchial or cardiac sensitizing agents.
Unless previously decontaminated, all patients suspected of contact with solid sodium hydroxide or its solutions and all victims with skin or eye irritation require decontamination as described below. Because sodium hydroxide is extremely corrosive, hospital personnel should don rubber gloves, rubber aprons, and eye protection before treating contaminated patients. All other patients may be transferred to the Critical Care area.
Administer supplemental oxygen by mask to patients who have respiratory symptoms. Treat patients who have bronchospasm with aerosolized bronchodilators. The use of bronchial sensitizing agents in situations of multiple chemical exposures may pose additional risks. Consider the health of the myocardium before choosing which type of bronchodilator should be administered. Cardiac sensitizing agents may be appropriate; however, the use of cardiac sensitizing agents after exposure to certain chemicals may pose enhanced risk of cardiac arrhythmias (especially in the elderly). Sodium hydroxide poisoning is not known to pose additional risk during the use of bronchial or cardiac sensitizing agents.
Skin burns from sodium hydroxide should be irrigated frequently with normal saline for 24 hours. Consider early (within 1 hour of exposure) institution of continuous hydrotherapy. Neutralizing substances should not be used. Fluid resuscitation should be provided as for comparable thermal burns; keeping in mind that the full extent of the sodium hydroxide burn may not be accurately assessed for 24 to 48 hours and may be underestimated initially.
Endoscopic evaluation is essential in cases of sodium hydroxide ingestion, and surgical consultation is recommended for patients who have suspected perforation. Signs and symptoms do not provide an accurate guide to the extent of injury. All patients suspected of significant caustic ingestion must have early endoscopy to assess injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum, and to guide subsequent management. Severe esophageal burns have occurred even in cases where burns of the mouth or oropharynx were not seen. The ingestion of large amounts of sodium hydroxide may also result in shock. Endoscopy may be contraindicated in cases where the patient is unstable, has upper airway compromise, evidence of perforation, or ingestion took place more than 48 hours previously.
The diagnosis of acute sodium hydroxide toxicity is primarily clinical, based on symptoms of corrosive injury. However, laboratory testing is useful for monitoring the patient and evaluating complications. Routine laboratory studies for all exposed patients include CBC, glucose, and electrolyte determinations. Patients who have respiratory complaints may require chest radiography and pulse oximetry (or ABG measurements). Patients with symptoms of severe burns or perforation may require renal function tests and blood typing. 041b061a72